At this stage garden design was fairly international in character and more or less uniform throughout Europe. The Germans imitated the Italian Renaissance style but readily switched to the grand geometric French style when it became dominant.
Gertrude Jekyll planted gardens as well as writing on the subject. She had a strong sense of colour, planting flowers and foliage for particular colour effect, but called attention also to leaf shapes and texture, especially of grey-leaved plants.
Many of the gardens planted by Gertrude Jekyll were for large country houses (often designed by the architect Edwin Lutyens) and were tended by gardeners. But the later emulated by all the Tudor nobility. The flower beds were laid out in a knot garden pattern and other characteristics included mazes, labyrinths, gazebos or pavilions, topiary, sundials, trellis and arbours. Vegetable gardens were usually walled and separate from the main garden. After 1660 the influence of Le Notre made itself felt briefly: grand parterres replaced simple knots and vast lakes and canals replaced the gentle fountain, while broad beech-lined avenues stretched out to the horizon. Though the English could not match the Italians or French as designers, nor the Dutch as growers, the closely-cut lawn was one feature of English gardens which attracted international admiration.
The seventeenth century was a time for pioneers on the English gardening scene. The first gardening text hooks appeared, the interest in horticulture increased and a great search for new plants began. The earliest botanic gardens were opened and there was an increasing use of orangeries and conservatories to protect tender plants.
An emergent middle class began to move out into the suburbs or even the country, which meant that many more people had gardens of their own and an interest in gardening greatly increased.
The twentieth century has seen large gardens become an economic impossibility and small ones multiply. Garden cities have been conceived and built, each house having its own individual garden.